Rothamsted Long-term Liming Experiment

Local identifier
R/CS/10
Years operational
1962—1997
Objective
The effect of lime on the yield and composition of crops and on the status of P and K in soils.
Description
Yields of various crops were recorded from 1962-1996 and papers published (Bolton, 1971, 1977 a,b; McEwen et al, 1990; Holland et al, 2019). Soil samples have been used for experiments determining the effects of pH on the bioavailability of heavy metals (Sanders et al, 1986). Lime was applied in one year (1962) and then in small doses between 1982-1987. The plots were also used as part of a dataset to produce the Rothamsted Lime Model (RothLime; Goulding et al, 1989) which was used from 1982 onwards to apply small amounts of lime to keep the plots at the target pHs (1:2.5 soil:water) of 4.5, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5. Since 1997 the Rothamsted plots have been in grass
Farm operation data?
Sample archive?
Samples available?
 
Data Access Statement
Available to any researcher on request
Data license
CC BY
Data URL
http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/Other#SEC17
Data policy
Yes (not online)
Organization
Rothamsted Research
research organisation
Person
Dr Sarah Perryman
data manager
Rothamsted Research
Computational and Analytical Sciences

Site: Sawyers Field I

Type
research station field
Location
Harpenden
Hertfordshire
United Kingdom
Geographic location
51.815925, -0.37565
© OpenStreetMap contributors
Elevation
130 Metres
Visits permitted?
No
Soil type
luvisol
Soil description
Chromic Luvisols and Orthic Acrisols Podzoluvisols (FAO). Derived from drift and loess over clay-with-flints.
Soil properties
VariableDepthValue (range)UnitsRef yearEstimated?Baseline?
coarse sand content Metres14 Percent1974
fine sand content Metres40 Percent1974
silt content 23 Percent1974
clay content Metres21 Percent1974
soil total carbon Metres1.4 Percent1974
total soil nitrogen Metres0.15 Percent1974
soil density Metres28000 tonnes per hectare1974
soil pH Metres (4.91 – 7.59) 1967

Design period: Cumulative P and K (1962—1980)

Design Type
Randomized complete block design
Description
The experiment was fallow in 1969, 1979 and 1980.
Design description
The original experimental design was four lime treatments with and without P and K (4 x 2 x 2 factorial with two replicates) within randomised blocks and with plot sizes of 6 m x 8 m. Until 1978 test P and K were both applied cumulatively. In 1964 plots receiving both P and K were subdivided for a comparison between broadcasting of powder fertiliser (B) (rates and materials as before) and placement of drilling of 409 lb 0:14:28(D). In 1962 columns of 4 plots being split for uninoculated v inoculated seed. 1979 and 1980 were fallow years. In 1964 plots receiving both P and K were subdivided for a comparison between broadcasting of powder fertiliser (B) (rates and materials as before) and placement of drilling of 409 lb 0:14:28(D).
Number of blocks
2
Number of plots
32
Number of replicates
2
Number of harvests per year
1
Crops
CropYears grown
beans 1962—1964
barley 1965—1967
potatoes 1968—
fallow 1969—
barley 1970—1973
potatoes 1974—
oats 1975—
rapeseed 1976—
oats 1977—
barley 1978—
fallow 1979—1980
Factors
liming exposure
Applied once in 1962/63 and again in 1979. Amounts given are the total amounts applied, see comments for splits.
Plot application: Whole plot
control exposure  (0 )
1962—1979
chalk  (7 t/ha)
5 t/ha in 1962, 2 t/ha in 1979
chalk  (15 t/ha)
10 t/ha in 1962, 5 t/ha in 1979
chalk  (30 t/ha)
20 t/ha in 1962, 10 t/ha in 1979
phosphate fertilizer exposure
P either applied or not applied to plots. Treatments were not applied in fallow years.
Plot application: Whole plot
Effect: Cumulative
control exposure  (0 )
1962—1981
Application frequency: annually in spring
superphosphate  (63 kgP/ha)
1962—1978
Applied to crop: All crops
Application frequency: annually in spring
potassium fertilizer exposure
Plot application: Whole plot
control exposure
1962—1978
potassium oxide  (126 kgK/ha)
1962—1978
Application frequency: annually in spring
Chemical form: potassium chloride
In 1968 and 1974, 188 kgK/ha was applied to potatoes and none in 1969 fallow year.
Rhizobium leguminosarum exposure
Plot application: Sub plot
control exposure
Applied to crop: beans
Rhizobium leguminosarum
Applied to crop: beans
Application method: seed dressing
magnesium nutrient exposure
Plot application: Sub plot
control exposure
magnesium  (112 kgMg/ha)
1974—1978
Application frequency: annually in spring
Chemical form: magnesium sulphate
Not applied in 1975. Applied as Epsom salts 1974-1977 and as Kieserite in 1978.

Design period: Residual Effects of P and Lime (1982—1996)

Description
Since 1981 potassium was applied as a basal application at 120 kgK/ha.
Design description
The experiment was modified in 1981 with 4 lime treatments and 4 P levels, but again only two replicates. One of the lime and one P treatment continued as “zeros”.
Crops
CropYears grown
oats 1981—1982
potatoes 1983—
fallow 1984—
barley 1985—
triticales 1986—
lupins 1987—
beans 1989—1990
rapeseed 1991—1992
lupins 1993—1994
wheat 1995—1996
Factors
phosphate fertilizer exposure
Plot application: Whole plot
control exposure
P1
Chemical form: calcium bis(dihydrogenphosphate)
Superphosphate at 25, 25 & 0 kgP/ha applied in 1981, 1982 & 1983 and 25 kgP/ha applied 1988
P2
Chemical form: calcium bis(dihydrogenphosphate)
Superphosphate at 25, 0 & 50 kg/ha applied in 1981, 1982 & 1983 and 25 kg/ha applied 1988
P3
Chemical form: calcium bis(dihydrogenphosphate)
Superphosphate at 75, 25 & 50 kg/ha applied in 1981, 1982 & 1983 and 75 kg/ha applied 1988
liming exposure
Plot application: Whole plot
Effect: Residual
chalk  (8 t/ha)
Total amount applied to plots previously receiving 7 t/ha chalk between 1962 and 1978. Chalk was applied at 2, 5 and 1 t/ha in 1982, 1983 and 1987 respectively.
chalk  (9.5 t/ha)
Total amount applied to plots previously receiving 15 t/ha chalk between 1962 and 1978. Chalk was applied at 5, 3 and 1.5 t/ha in 1982, 1983 and 1987 respectively.
chalk  (22.5 t/ha)
Total amount applied to plots previously receiving 30 t/ha chalk between 1962 and 1978. Chalk was applied at 10, 10 and 2.5 t/ha in 1982, 1983 and 1987 respectively.
manganese nutrient exposure
Plot application: Sub plot
Effect: Cumulative
control exposure  (0 )
manganese
1987—1990
Application method: foliar application
Applied in various forms and rates