The Swedish long-term soil fertility experiment, R3-9001, Ekebo

Local identifier
R3-9001; M-6-1957
Years operational
1957—
Objective
To investigate if the long-term productivity of an agricultural soil can be increased by using mineral fertilizers. Focus is on the influence of the natural conditions of the site compared to the influence of management practices. What factors are the most important for long-term productivity: fertilization, crop rotation, or natural circumstances? In addition, the soils resilience against nutrient impoverishment and intensive crop production is tested.
Description
In 1957 the first long-term soil fertility experiments were established at different locations in the southernmost region of Sweden, Skåne. In 1963 and 1966 additional experiments were started in central Sweden. In 2021 nine soil fertility experiments remain active, located at Fjärdingslöv, Orup, Borgeby and Ekebo in the southern region, and Bjertorp, Vreta Kloster, Högåsa, Kungsängen and Fors in the central region. In the experiments two cropping systems are tested, one representing a typical farm with livestock and one representing a typical farm with no animals, referred to as crop rotation I and II, respectively. Crop rotation I receives a combination of cattle manure and mineral fertilizers, and straw and plant residues is removed from the field. In crop rotation II only mineral fertilizers are used and straw and plant residues is left on the field after harvest. Both crop rotations receive four levels of nitrogen addition and four levels of PK addition. Crop samples are collected every year and topsoil samples every 4th year in the south region and every 6th year in the central region.
Data Access Statement
Available to any researcher on request
Data Access Notes
To access data, samples, or the experiment, contact soilnutrientcycling@slu.se
Data license
Don't know
Data policy
Don't know
Organization
The Swedish university of agricultural sciences
research organisation
Person
Dr. Sabina Braun
experiment manager
SLU
Soil and environment

Site: Ekebo

Type
farmer field
Local code
M-6-1957
Location
Helsingborg
Skåne
Sweden
Geographic location
55.9916, 12.8809
© OpenStreetMap contributors
Elevation
72 Metres
Visits permitted?
Yes
Visiting arrangements
Contact soilnutrientcycling@slu.se
History
Agricultural land
Management
Inversion plowed Pesticides used as needed
Climate properties
VariableTime periodValue (range)Units
air temperature 1961 – 1990 7.6 degree Celsius
air temperature 1991 – 2020 8.7 degree Celsius
precipitation 1961 – 1990 703 millimeter
precipitation 1991 – 2020 722 millimeter

Design period:

Design Type
Other
Description
Two cropping systems are tested, one representing a typical farm with livestock and one representing a typical farm with no animals, referred to as crop rotation I and II, respectively. Crop rotation I receives a combination of cattle manure and mineral fertilizers, and straw and plant residues is removed from the field. In crop rotation II only mineral fertilizers are used and straw and plant residues is left on the field after harvest. Both crop rotations receive four levels of nitrogen addition and four levels of PK addition.
Design description
Four blocks, two with crop rotation I+manure+straw removed and two with crop rotation II+no manure+straw left on field. Blocks split into subplots with four levels of N addition and four levels of PK addition.
Number of plots
4
Number of subplots
8
Number of replicates
2
Number of harvests per year
1
Crops
CropYears grown
sugar beet
winter wheat
grass clover leys
spring barley
oats
Crop Rotations
Crop rotation I, with livestock
  • 1
    spring barley
  • 2
    grass clover leys
  • 3
    winter wheat
  • 4
    sugar beet
Crop rotation II, no livestock
  • 1
    spring barley
  • 2
    oats
  • 3
    winter wheat
  • 4
    sugar beet
Factors
Factor name
Factor levels
nitrogen fertilizer exposure
N level 1  (0 )
N level 2  (50 kgN/ha)
Application frequency: yearly
Application method: broadcast application method
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
N level 3  (100 kgN/ha)
Application frequency: yearly
Application method: broadcast application method
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
N level 4  (150 kgN/ha)
Application frequency: yearly
Application method: broadcast application method
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
phosphate fertilizer exposure
P0  (0 kgP/ha)
Application method: broadcast application method
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
P replacement
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
"Replacement" means that the same amount of P that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
P replacement + 15  (replacement + 15 kgP/ha)
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
"Replacement" means that the same amount of P that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
P replacement +  (replacement + 30 kgP/ha)
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
"Replacement" means that the same amount of P that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
potassium fertilizer exposure
K0  (0 )
K replacement  (replacement )
Chemical form: potassium chloride
"Replacement" means that the same amount of K that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
K replacement +  (replacement + 40 kg K kgK/ha)
Chemical form: potassium chloride
"Replacement" means that the same amount of K that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
K replacement +  (replacement + 80 kgK/ha)
Chemical form: potassium chloride
"Replacement" means that the same amount of K that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
farmyard manure exposure
slurry  (25 t/ha)
Applied to crop: sugar beet
Application frequency: Once every 4 year
Applied in autumn after harvest of winter wheat.
no manure
crop residue management process
Crop residues removed
Crop residues left
crop rotation
crop rotation I
crop rotation II

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