Source P and cover crops in Dois Vizinhos, south of Brazil

Local identifier
Dois Vizinhos, Paraná state, south of Brazil
Years operational
The study the effect of P fertilizer (none, RP, and SSP) in combination with cover crop residues (common vetch, white lupin, radish, ryegrass, black oat, rye, and fallow) on maize-soybean yield and P use efficiency and also.
Data Access Statement
Available to any researcher on request
Data license
Don't know
Data policy
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Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo
research organisation
Campus Dois Vizinhos, Federal Technological University of Paraná
experimental research station
Dr. Paulo Sergio Pavinato
principal investigator
Associate Professor
Soil Science
Dr. Laercio Ricardo Sartor
principal investigator
Adjunct Professor
Crop Science
MSc. João Henrique Silva da Luz
data manager
Master's Degree
Soil Science

Site: Corn-Soybean with source P and cover crops in South Brazil

research station field
Local code
25°44′05″S, 53°03′31″W
Dois Vizinhos
Geographic location
-25.693007, -53.094344
© OpenStreetMap contributors
509 Metres
Visits permitted?
Soil type
clayey Rhodic Hapludox
Soil description
This soil is representative of large areas of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and maize (Zea mays) cultivation in Brazil. Properties of the soil in the experiment establishment (2009). Depth layer Clay content pH (CaCl2) OM P-Resin Al3+ H+Al Ca2+ Mg2+ K+ V cm g kg–1 g dm–3 mg dm–3 ——–—----- cmolc dm–3 ----——–— % 0–5 701 5.4 40.2 8.11 0.00 3.42 5.40 2.69 0.50 71.5 5–10 739 5.2 40.2 9.73 0.00 3.68 2.98 2.98 0.28 70.7 10–20 751 5.0 26.8 4.80 0.08 3.97 2.13 2.13 0.13 62.4
Soil properties
VariableDepthValue (range)UnitsRef yearEstimated?Baseline?
clay content0 – 5 Centimetres701 gram per kilogram
clay content5 – 10 Centimetres739 gram per kilogram
clay content10 – 20 Centimetres751 gram per kilogram
soil pH0 – 5 Centimetres5.4 g dm-3
soil pH5 – 10 Centimetres5.2 g dm-3
soil pH10 – 20 Centimetres5.4 g dm-3
Climatic type
humid subtropical climate
Climate description
mesothermal humid subtropical climate (Cfa) without a dry season, with mean temperatures of 22 ºC in Summer and 17 ºC in Winter, with average rainfall of 2100 mm per year.
Climate properties
VariableTime periodValue (range)Units
precipitation2100 mm

Design period: Corn-Soybean with source P and cover crops with P inputs (2009—2015)

Design Type
Randomized complete block design
The factorial scheme (3x7). Phosphate fertilizer sources were always applied at sowing of bean and maize (Summer crops), as RP (from Algeria: 9% soluble P2O5 and 29% total P2O5) and soluble phosphate (SSP: 18% soluble/total P2O5). A treatment without P addition was also included (nil-P). Species of winter cover crops were: common vetch, white lupin, forage radish, ryegrass, black oat, and rye and a fallow (occasional weeds, not identified).
Design description
The experimental treatments were established as a randomized, complete block, split-plot design with three blocks, considering P sources as main plot in three levels and cover crop species as subplot in seven levels. Plots with the dimension of 5 by 5 m were established in January 2009.
Number of plots
Number of subplots
Number of replicates
Number of harvests per year
CropYears grown
cover crop
Factor name
Factor levels
phosphate fertilizer exposure
Phosphate fertilizer sources.
rock phosphate
Chemical form: rock phosphate
from Algeria: 9% soluble P2O5 and 29% total P2O5
single superphosphate
Chemical form: single superphosphate
18% soluble/total P2O5
No P addition
cover cropping
Species of winter cover crops
Common vetch
Vicia sativa
white lupins
Lupinus albus
fodder radish
Raphanus sativus
black oat
Avena strigosa
Secale cereale
Occasional weeds, not identified.
soil fertilitySoilcm depthEvery three years
grain yield traitsoybeanshaYearly
stover biomassmaizekg per hectareYearly
uptake cover cropsmaizekg per hectareYearly
P fractionsSoilmg kgEvery three years

Design period: Corn-Soybean with source P and cover crops exploring Legacy P (2016—)

Phosphorus fertilization was halted after 2015 as anion exchange resin P reached high levels (>50 mg kg–1). In 2016 the objective was to explore the soil legacy P (residual P from past fertilization). All details remained similar to that established, except for the suspension of P inputs.
CropYears grown

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