Crop rotation and fertilisation trial, Kuusiku

This experiment has been added by the GLTEN Curators using existing published sources.
Objective
Trials of crop rotation and fertilisation established to determine the requirements for Estonian soil fertilisation.
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Site: Kuusiku

Location
Kuusiku
Estonia
Geographic location
58.584816, 24.422128
© OpenStreetMap contributors
Elevation
55 Metres
Visits permitted?
No
Management
The soil was ploughed to a depth of 22 cm. Synthetic pesticides were used and mineral fertilisers were applied during soil tillage before sowing.
Soil type
calcisol

Design period: (1973—)

Design description
The experiment has 21 fertiliser treatments (four NPK fertiliser and two FYM levels) and 6 crops, in two repetitions. From 1975 to 1992 the rotation was fully phased across 252 plots. Since 1993 the experiment area was reduced to 84 plots and is no longer fully phased with only 2 rotation phases present in any one year. Plots measure 7.5 x 7.5m.
Number of plots
84
Crops
CropYears grown
potatoes
barley
grass clover leys
winter rye
Crop Rotation
Unnamed
  • 1
    potatoes
  • 2
    barley
    late harvested
  • 3
    barley
    early harvested
  • 4
    grass clover leys
    red clover and timothy undersown in barley
  • 5
    grass clover leys
  • 6
    winter rye
Factors
Factor name
Factor levels
nitrogen fertilizer exposure
Amounts of N applied varied between crops. No fertilizers are applied to the first year of grass clover leys.
N0  (0 )
N1  (20-45 kgN/ha)
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
N2  (40-90 kgN/ha)
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
N3  (60-135 kgN/ha)
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
N4  (80-180 kgN/ha)
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
phosphate fertilizer exposure
Amounts of P applied varied between crops. No fertilizers are applied to the first year of grass clover leys.
P1  (0-26 kgP/ha)
P2  (18-52 kgP/ha)
P3  (27-78 kgP/ha)
potassium fertilizer exposure
Amounts of K applied varied between crops. No fertilizers are applied to the first year of grass clover leys.
K1  (25-35 kgK/ha)
K2  (50-70 kgK/ha)
K3  (75-105 kgK/ha)
farmyard manure exposure
FYM1  (30 t/ha)
Applied to crop: potatoes
Application frequency: once per rotation
FYM2  (60 t/ha)
Applied to crop: potatoes
Application frequency: once per rotation
Factor combinations
N0P0K0
No fertilizers or manure applied
N1P0K0
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N1
N1P1K0
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N1
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P1
N1P0K1
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N1
potassium fertilizer exposure: -
N1P1K1
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N1
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P1
potassium fertilizer exposure: K1
N2P1K1
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N2
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P1
potassium fertilizer exposure: K1
N2P1K2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N2
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P1
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
N2P2K1
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N2
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
N2P2K2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N2
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
N3P3K2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N3
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P3
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
N3P2K2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N3
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
N3P2K3
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N3
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K3
N2P3K2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N2
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P3
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
N3P3K3
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N3
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P3
potassium fertilizer exposure: K3
N4P3K3
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N4
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P3
potassium fertilizer exposure: K3
N2P2K2 + FYM1
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N2
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
farmyard manure exposure: FYM1
N3P2K2 + FYM1
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N3
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
farmyard manure exposure: FYM1
N4P3K3 + FYM1
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N4
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P3
potassium fertilizer exposure: K3
farmyard manure exposure: FYM1
N2P2K2 + FYM2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N2
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
farmyard manure exposure: FYM2
N3P2K2 + FYM2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N3
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P2
potassium fertilizer exposure: K2
farmyard manure exposure: FYM2
N4P3K3 + FYM2
nitrogen fertilizer exposure: N4
phosphate fertilizer exposure: P3
potassium fertilizer exposure: K3
farmyard manure exposure: FYM2
Measurements
VariableMaterialUnitsFrequencyScaleComment
grain yield traitAll cropsannually
soil organic carbonSoilonce per rotation
nitrogen contentAll crops
phosphorous contentAll crops
potassium contentAll crops

Related publications

  • V. Loide (2019) The results of an NPK-fertilisation trial of long-term crop rotation on carbonate-rich soil in Estonia, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B — Soil & Plant Science, 69:7, 596-605