Westsik’s crop rotation long-term experiment

This experiment has been added by the GLTEN Curators using existing published sources.
Local identifier
Hungary, Nyíregyháza
Years operational
1929—
Objective
Study the effects of organic manure treatments and cheical fertilizers on soil properties and crop yields in different crop rotations.
Description
The crop rotation experiment, established by Vilmos Westsik in 1929, is the best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary. It is still used to study the effects of organic manure treatments and cheical fertilizers on soil properties and crop yields in different crop rotations. Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of fertilisers, green, straw and farmyard manure. The experiment also provides a resource of yield, plant and soil data sets for scientific research into the soil and plant processes which control soil fertility, and into the sustainability of production without environmental deterioration. The maintenance of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment can be used to illustrate the value of long-term field experiments.
Data Access Statement
Other
Data license
Don't know
Data policy
Don't know
Organization
University of Debrecen
research organisation
People
Marianna Makádi
principal investigator
University of Debrecen
Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm, Research Institute of Nyíregyháza
István Henzsel
experiment manager
University of Debrecen
Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm, Research Institute of Nyíregyháza

Site: Westsik’s crop rotation long-term experiment

Type
research station field
Location
Nyíregyháza
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county
Hungary
Geographic location
47.981948, 21.703148
© OpenStreetMap contributors
Elevation
106 Metres
Visits permitted?
Yes
Visiting arrangements
Visits are possible for professionals after arrangement by email.
History
The 12.4 ha of the experiment was an arable land before starting the LTE. The main aim of planning the experiment was to present the farmers how to manage their farms on sandy soil with low humus and clay content.
Management
Site is conventionally managed.
Soil type
Arenosol
Soil description
acidic sandy soil
Soil properties
VariableDepthValue (range)UnitsRef yearEstimated?Baseline?
soil pH0 – 20 Centimetres4.25 2011
humus content0 – 20 Centimetres0.6 Percent2011
NO3-N0 – 20 Centimetres3.13 milligram per kilogram2011
AL-P2O50 – 20 Centimetres95.81 milligram per kilogram2011
AL-K2O0 – 20 Centimetres83.92 milligram per kilogram2011
Climatic type
warm continental / mediterranean climate
Climate properties
VariableTime periodValue (range)Units
mean annual temperature10 degree Celsius
mean annual precipitation560 millimeter

Design period:

Design Type
Demonstration strip design
Design description
This experiment was planned as a demonstration place of farmer's winter school to present different forms of crop rotations with different organic and chemical fertilizers. All plants of crop rotations are sown every year. Forms of organic matter in the experiment are FYM, straw manure and lupine green manure, with or without N, P, K fertilizers.
Number of plots
46
Number of replicates
0
Crops
CropYears grown
rye
potatoes
lupins
vetch
oat with vetch
Crop Rotations
Crop rotation I.  1929—
  • 1
    -
    Fallow
  • 2
    rye
    not fertilized
  • 3
    potatoes
    not fertilized
Crop rotation II.  1929—
  • 1
    lupins
    for green manure + P, K fertilization
  • 2
    rye
    P, K fertilization
  • 3
    potatoes
    N fertilization
Crop rotation III.  1929—
  • 1
    lupins
    P, K fertilization
  • 2
    rye
    P, K fertilization
  • 3
    potatoes
    N fertilization
Crop rotation IV.  1929—
  • 1
    rye
    mulch, N, P, K fertilization
  • 2
    potatoes
    N, P, K fertilization
  • 3
    rye
    not fertilized
Crop rotation V.  1929—
  • 1
    rye
    straw manure + N, P, K fertilization
  • 2
    potatoes
    N, P, K fertilization
  • 3
    rye
    not fertilized
Crop rotation VI.  1929—
  • 1
    rye
    straw manure + N, P, K fertilization
  • 2
    potatoes
    N, P, K fertilization
  • 3
    rye
    not fertilized
Crop rotation VII.  1929—
  • 1
    rye
    straw manure
  • 2
    potatoes
    not fertilized
  • 3
    rye
    not fertilized
Crop rotation VIII  1929—
  • 1
    lupins
    P, K fertilization
  • 2
    rye
    N, P, K fertilization
    lupins
    for green manure
  • 3
    potatoes
    P, K fertilization
  • 4
    rye
    N fertilization
Crop rotation IX.  1929—
  • 1
    lupins
    for green forage, P, K fertilization
  • 2
    rye
    N, P, K fertilization
  • 3
    potatoes
    N fertilization
Crop rotation X.  1929—
  • 1
    oat with vetch
    farmyard manure
  • 2
    rye
    not fertilized
  • 3
    potatoes
    not fertilized
Crop rotation XI.  1929—
  • 1
    oat with vetch
    farmyard manure + P, K fertilization
  • 2
    rye
    P, K fertilization
  • 3
    potatoes
    N fertilization
Crop rotation XII.  1927—
  • 1
    rye
    P, K fertilization
    lupins
    for gen manure
  • 2
    rye
    P, K fertilization
  • 3
    potatoes
    N fertilization
Crop rotation XIII.  1929—
  • 1
    rye
    N, P, K fertilization
    lupins
    for green manure, ploughing in spring
  • 2
    potatoes
    N, P, K fertilization
  • 3
    rye
    N, P, K fertilization
Crop rotation XIV.  1929—
  • 1
    rye
    N, P, K fertilization
    lupins
    for green manure, ploughing in autumn
  • 2
    potatoes
    N, P, K fertilization
  • 3
    rye
    N, P, K fertilization
Crop rotation XV.  1929—
  • 1
    rye
    not fertilized
    lupins
    for green manure, ploughing in spring
  • 2
    potatoes
    not fertilized
  • 3
    rye
    not fertilized
Factors
Factor name
Factor levels
organic amendments exposure
fallow
1929—
This crop rotation (I.) is used as a control.
farmyard manure  (26.1 t/ha)
1929—
Application frequency: every third year
Application method: mouldboard plough
FYM is used in Crop rotations X and XI.
straw mulch  (3.5 t/ha)
1929—
Application frequency: every third year
Application method: mulch
Straw mulch is applied in Crop rotation IV, before sawing the first-year rye.
straw manure  (11.3 t/ha)
1929—
Application method: mouldboard plough
This type of organic manure is applied in Crop rotation V.
straw manure  (26.1 t/ha)
1929—
Application method: mouldboard plough
This type of organic manure is applied in Crop rotations VI and VII.
lupine as main crop
1929—
This type of organic manure is applied in Crop rotation III.
lupine as green manure
1929—
Application method: mouldboard plough
This type of organic manure is applied in Crop rotations II., VIII, XII-XV.
chemical fertilizer exposure
nitrogen  (0 kg/ha)
Crop rotations I, VII, X and XV are not treated with N.
nitrogen  (43 kg/ha)
This N rate is applied in Crop rotations II, III, XI and XII, spreaded over the crop rotation phases.
nitrogen  (86 kg/ha)
This N rate is applied in Crop rotations VIII, IX, XIII and XIV, spreaded over the crop rotation phases.
nitrogen  (108 kg/ha)
This N rate is applied in Crop rotations IV, V and VI, spreaded over the crop rotation phases.
phosphorous  (0 )
Crop rotations I, VII, X and XV are not treated with P.
phosphorous  (94 kg/ha)
This P rate is applied in Crop rotations II-VI, VIII, IX and XI-XIV, spreaded over the crop rotation phases.
potassium  (0 )
Crop rotations I, VII, X and XV are not treated with K.
potassium  (84 kg/ha)
This K rate is applied in Crop rotations II-VI, VIII, IX and XI-XIV, spreaded over the crop rotation phases.
Measurements
VariableMaterialUnitsFrequencyScaleComment
plant biomassNot specifiedannually
yield traitAll cropsannually
pHpotatoesannually
humus contentpotatoes%annually
NO3-Npotatoesmg/kgannually
AL-P2O5Not specifiedmg/kgannually
AL-K2Opotatoesmg/kgannually
available Mgpotatoesmg/kgannually
available Znpotatoesmg/kgannually
available Cupotatoesmg/kgannually
available Mnpotatoesmg/kgannually

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